WATER AND STEAM INJECTION, plus GASIFICATION SYSTEMS notes the energy which exists in each gallon of gasoline. Then, various forms of water injection are presented. When used rightly, these systems can increase fuel economy and overall engine performance.
These systems are important "stepping stones" on the path to the author's overall engine package. The use of water and steam injection helps to control combustion and also reduces harmful exhaust emissions.
Click on any of the links below to obtain additional information regarding a subject.
In recent times, the value of steam injection has been thoroughly proven in the field of drag racing. Yes, the race boys are now picking up on this important secret. It's about time!
[NOTE: The author's systems do not require costly machining for installation, as do those of the race boys.]
Attention diesel fans: water (and even steam) injection can produce beneficial results in your applications.
This report will help to obtain a better understanding of benefits which may be obtained by the use of water and steam in an internal-combustion engine.
The following report is an important summary of information obtained from various sources. It also includes some of the authors real-life experiences and findings.
The first entries discuss a few types of water-injection systems which have successfully been used on internal combustion engines. Also shown are some fuel mileage gains which have been experienced with each of these systems. Following the water-injection information is a rudimentary discussion on steam-injection and its potential advantages.
The discussion then turns to examine an interesting fuel-vaporization system: one which was successfully tested in the 1930's. This testing was accomplished on a number of early Ford V8's.
Finally, an even better system is introduced: one which appears to be capable of producing phenomenal mileage and performance increases, while greatly reducing harmful emissions! This system also has the potential of being multi-fuel: even using various waste products as its fuel.
Before we enter into our main discussion, let me state a few facts about gasoline. One Imperial gallon of gasoline contains about 145,000 BTU’s of combustion energy. This is equal to about 113 million foot-pounds of force, or 57 horsepower-hours.
The amount of energy stated above would, against all the forces of gravity, lift a 3,000 pound car 37,660 feet straight up into the air. Friend, this is a little more than seven miles straight up: and that is using the energy contained in just one single gallon of gasoline. This would be like launching a car (like a rocket) from sea level to the top of Mount Everest, and beyond.
So much for speaking about sending a car into orbit. The research facility of David Sakrisson is only interested in propelling a standard motor vehicle along typical roadways.
Our roadways contain many sections of level ground, which may take as little as one-eighth horsepower to keep a car rolling. But they also contain many uphill and downhill sections. But none require the brute energy of the extreme, straight-up launch spoken of above.
With the above information firmly in mind, let us continue into a rudimentary discussion of water-injection systems, plus a couple of very special fuel systems.
Let us begin our examination with the most simple system, and work toward those that are more advanced.
The first "water injection" system to be examined is a very simple unit. Technically speaking, it is more like a water vapor induction system. Its main component is a water reservoir, through which air is bubbled. The air in this simple system is admitted to the water reservoir through a tube which passes to the bottom of the reservoir. At the bottom end of this tube is attached an aquarium air stone.
The air flow is broken into a myriad of tiny bubbles during its passage through this air stone. The myriad of tiny bubbles collect moisture as they pass through the water in the reservoir. Then, the moist air collects in the air space at the top of the reservoir.
From the top of the reservoir, the moist air is drawn through a flexible tube which connects to a T-fitting installed in an existing vacuum hose. From that point, the moist air passes onward into the engine intake manifold.
The water metering in the very simple system, noted in the section above, is controlled by a needle valve. This valve is usually located at the vacuum hose. The valve in these "economy" units is usually manually adjusted to properly regulate the amount of water vapor admitted into the intake manifold.
With the most basic water vapor injection system, the needle valve is set to allow for proper engine operation at idle speed. Under conditions which result in lowered intake manifold vacuum (such as at higher RPM’s and whenever the engine is under load), this manual system will not admit the proper amount of water vapor which will allow for greatly improving engine performance. Nevertheless, some benefits will still be noted with this basic system.
When using a simple water vapor system, an immediate improvement is often noted in low RPM power. In one example, an individual stated that after installation of one of these "economy" systems, their test vehicle readily began to climb hills that formerly required a down shift of the transmission.
When using simple water vapor injection, gas mileage can be improved by up to 6%, or slightly more. The gas mileage of one particular test vehicle increased from 32 MPG to 34 MPG. If that vehicle has a 15 gallon fuel tank, it will obtain an additional 30 miles of travel for each tankful of gasoline. Considering the benefits from this perspective, the savings do add up rather quickly if the vehicle is in fairly constant use.
DOLLARS AND CENTS
Looking at the example vehicle above, let us say you are paying $2.50 per gallon for your gasoline. Then let's say you are on the road a reasonable amount of time per week, and have to fill up your tank twice a week.
With the simple water vapor system, you would be saving about $5.00 per week. At this rate, in the time of just one year (or 52 weeks), you will have saved yourself about $260.00 by using even a very simple water vapor system. That is not too bad of a return, considering that the system does not cost very much to begin with.
The table below indicates the gas mileage improvements to be experienced with a 6% increase in efficiency. The first column (Current MPG) shows the current miles per gallon for a non-water-injected vehicle. The second column (New Injected MPG) indicates the miles per gallon which may be experienced after installation of the extremely simple water vapor injection system indicated above.
New Injected MPG
ONE INDIVIDUAL’S EXPERIENCE
Let us now turn to a more advanced type of system. One individual installed their first water injection system on a motor vehicle in the 1964. This system was installed on a Porsche race car.
It was said that this system worked very well indeed, for the racing organization soon responded by banning their device. It appears that the racing association's main objection was this: the water injection system made the vehicle too fast!
A SPECIAL NOZZLE
In the early days (when water injection was in its infancy), there was not a simple way to effectively control the volume and atomization of the tiny amount of fluid needed to adapt water injection to the small engines which were commonly found in economy vehicles.
This picture completely changed in the late 1970's, with the invention of a special nozzle. With this nozzle, properly metered water injection became possible.
One example of a modified vehicle was a 1978 vintage economy car. In its modified form, it obtained 50 MPG in normal around town driving. The standard volume control valve (which controlled the smog pump) also controlled the air flow to the water injection spray nozzle.
The volume control valve carefully monitored engine load and speed, and then automatically adjusted the air pressure to the spray nozzle. Therefore, this system provided the correct water spray under all operating conditions.
The water injection unit on the above vehicle allowed a ratio of 5% water to 95% gasoline to flow through the fuel induction system. At a water flow of 5%, if the motor consumed a gallon of gasoline every 50 miles, the water in the one gallon reservoir lasted about 1000 miles.
During operation of this well-designed water injection system, the octane rating of the fuel charge (within the engine cylinder) was effectively raised. This resulted in a higher flash point for the fuel charge. The use of water injection resulted in at least three more special benefits for the engine.
The first benefit comes from the fine spray of water, which cools the air-fuel mixture in the engine. This cooling produces a denser fuel charge in the engine cylinder. This allows for a greater expansion of the fuel charge during the power stroke of the engine.
The greater expansion translates into a higher average pressure buildup (different than the non-usable pressure spike) within the engine cylinder during the power stroke. This higher average pressure (gained by the addition of water) translates to more power output from the engine, without using any additional fuel. The efficiency of the engine is therefore increased!
The second benefit results from the heat of combustion, which converts any water droplets (contained in the engine cylinder) into a superheated vapor. During this conversion, the water attempts to expand at least 1700 times in volume.
In the restricted confines of the engine cylinder, the water vapor is not able to expand freely. Thus it helps to cause a controlled, rapid increase in cylinder pressure. This controlled pressure increase also raises the overall power output of the engine, without increasing fuel consumption.
The third benefit results as the myriad water droplets are converted into saturated steam during the combustion of the fuel. This process of expansion from a liquid to a vapor consumes heat at the rate of about 1,100 calories per gram of water converted.
This great absorption of heat prevents the temperature of combustion from rushing to an extremely sharp peak (which is related to the engine stressing, potentially head-gasket blowing, non-usable pressure “spike”), with its associated sudden drop of pressure on the down side of the spike.
In all essence, the water acts as a combustion moderator, and allows for a more uniform, but higher average level of cylinder-pressure the full length of the power stroke. Again, this results in more power output from the engine, without an increase in fuel comsumption.
THE GREAT WASTER
The sudden pressure-spike which occurs as combustion is first initiated in the cylinder of a standard-equipped engine is generally a great waster of energy. It is extremely hard (or virtually impossible) to convert this pressure spike into useable work in an engine, except through the moderating effect of water injection.
It also appears that the intense pressure-spikes may be one of the major causes of excessive nitric oxide emissions from the average internal combustion engine. It truly is time we turned to the benefits of water or steam injection to control the wasteful pressure-spike.
When using water injection in an engine, the overall combustion proceeds more slowly. This causes the heat and pressure within the engine cylinder to increase more slowly and uniformly, and to reach a lower peak (a peak much lower than that of the non-usable "pressure spike").
When using a properly designed water injection system, as the piston moves downward, pressure in the cylinder, during the full length of the power stroke, can then be made to decrease much more gradually than it does when using just a standard, non-water-injected fuel system.
The final result of water injection is: in a properly designed system, more overall pressure can readily be experienced in the engine cylinder during the full length of the power stroke, than is experienced in a non-water-injected engine.
This increased pressure means that more power is readily able to be extracted out of the engine, without increasing fuel consumption. This also means that more power may be extracted out of an engine, while a reduction in harmful emissions is experienced because of improved combustion characteristics.
A good water injection system, alone, can make an engine more efficient and gas thrifty, if the engine is adjusted to obtain the maximum benefits available. But a good mechanic can easily improve upon such benefits. One particular vehicle had its engine completely modified. The compression ratio was increased to 12.7:1 by the use of special pistons.
Even when using this high compression ratio with the lower grade gasolines, a greatly reduced maximum temperature of combustion was obtainable by the use of a properly designed and metered water injection system. This lower-than-normal overall temperature prevents the common problems of pre-ignition and increased nitric oxide emissions, which are normally associated with a high temperature environment.
The vehicle noted above, passed an EPA emissions test with only one half of the maximum legal emissions allowed for that type of vehicle. As a further benefit, the 12.7:1 compression ratio vehicle appears to have experienced about a 50% increase in gas mileage over a stock, non-water-injected vehicle of its type.
The table below indicates the gas mileage improvements to be experienced with a 50% increase in fuel mileage. An increase of this amount, using common procedures, is usually obtained through the use of rather expensive engine modifications. But if a few thousand dollars of modifications is of no special concern to you, then here are the improvements which potentially can be expected using these methods.
The first column (Current MPG) shows the starting miles per gallon of the vehicle. The second column (New Injected MPG) indicates the miles per gallon which should be experienced after installation of a properly designed water injection system.
New Injected MPG
Let us now calculate the savings for a vehicle which increases its fuel mileage by 50%, during average driving. Let us say that this vehicle increases its mileage from an original 35 MPG up to a new mileage of 50 MPG.
If the vehicle has a 15 gallon fuel tank, it has the potential to travel another 225 miles per tank full of fuel. Now, let us say that the owner of this particular vehicle does a lot of traveling and has to fill their tank at least twice a week. If they pay $2.50 per gallon of gasoline, their savings will be about $22.50 per week.
In one year (or 52 weeks), the owner of the above vehicle will have saved about $1,170 in fuel costs. I don't think any consumer would complain about this type of savings.
THE AVERAGE "JOE"
On the other hand, what can the average driver expect from their stock vehicle when installing water injection? A completely stock engine (with its stock fuel handling system) may still experience a 20% or more improvement in gas mileage after a properly designed water injection unit is competently installed.
The following table indicates the gas mileage improvements to be experienced with just a 20% increase in efficiency. Again, the first column (Current MPG) shows the starting miles per gallon of the vehicle. The second column (New Injected MPG) indicates the miles per gallon which may be experienced after installation of a water injection system.
New Injected MPG
Let us say that the average "Joe" increased their fuel mileage by 5 MPG (from a starting 25 MPG, to a new of 30 MPG). If they have a 15 gallon fuel tank, they will be able to travel another 75 miles per tankful of gasoline. If they must fill their tank twice a week, they will gain 150 extra miles of travel per week.
If the average "Joe" is getting 30 MPG, this means that they have saved 5 gallons of gasoline per week. If they are paying $2.50 per gallon of gasoline, they will have saved $12.50 per week. In one year (again, 52 weeks), they will have saved about $650.00 in fuel costs. This sounds reasonably good to me. What do you think?
BASIC STEAM INJECTION
The author's first automotive steam injection unit was built in 1979. It was an extremely crude design. It was installed on a 1966 Jeep four-wheel-drive pickup which had a 327 CID American Motors V8 engine and a Turbohyramatic-400 automatic transmission.
The crude steam injection system used in these experiments consisted of a plastic water tank, with a 1/8 inch plastic tube leading to a metal boiler tube. This boiler tube consisted of a length of 1/8" OD copper tubing which was wound around the exhaust manifold. The complete boiler was then wrapped with aluminum foil. This helped to retain as much heat as possible in the boiler system.
The steam produced in the boiler tube was transferred to the base of the carburetor, for induction into the intake manifold, via a 1/4" OD copper tube. This copper tube was insulated to help retain as much heat as possible. The steam then entered the carburetor at a point below the throttle plates.
It should be noted that the very crude, experimental steam injection system (noted above) was fixed to (somewhat) properly meter steam flow only at engine idle speed. It truly did not meter the steam properly for higher engine RPM’s or loads.
To set the necessary steam flow at idle, the water inlet of the 1/8" copper boiler tube was simply crushed flat with a set of Vise Grip pliers. Even with such a crude system, a number of benefits were immediately experienced with the test vehicle.
Prior to installation of the crude steam injection unit (noted above), the spark plugs of the "tired" test vehicle were found to be coated with carbon whenever they were removed for inspection at periodic tuneup times. After installation of just the crude steam injection unit, the spark plugs were always found to be very clean whenever they were removed.
With steam injection installed, the acceleration of the test vehicle was noticeably improved. The gas mileage also improved from 12 MPG to a value of 14 MPG. This does not sound like much, but it is a respectable increase of about 17% in fuel mileage.
Once again, it should be noted that this extremely crude system did not include any type of variable metering system. As stated above, it was crudely fixed to operate properly only at idle speed. Then again, this unit did not cost very much: only relatively few dollars.
In the real life example above, a 2 MPG savings was experienced. This vehicle had a 20 gallon fuel tank. This means that an extra 40 miles was gained per tankful of gasoline. If the tank had to be filled twice a week (which was usual), a distance of 80 miles was gained per week. At 14 MPG for that particular vehicle, the author saved 5.7 gallons of gasoline per week.
Now, if a person had to pay $2.50 per gallon of gasoline, the savings in the above example would amount to $14.25 per week. In one year (again, 52 weeks), a savings of about $741 could be experienced using the crude, but very inexpensive steam injection system.
At a more current price for gasoline of $3.00 per gallon, the weekly savings would be $17.10, with a yearly savings of $889.20. This is not bad at all, considering the system could be built for about $20.00 in parts.
Please note: with a properly designed metering system on a steam injection system, the increase in fuel mileage should potentially be much higher than the 17% which was readily obtainable with the crude system noted above. In the following sections of this report, the true potential should become evident.
A lean, fast burning fuel mixture is the most powerful mixture for use in an engine. It burns almost explosively. But a fast burning fuel mixture (which can produce very sudden pressure spikes) is not always the best for the internal combustion engine which only possesses standard equipment.
When a standard equipped engine is under loaded conditions, a very lean mixture will readily detonate. Continued detonation may cause major damage to the engine.
In a standard motor vehicle, whether carbureted or fuel injected, there is some type of mechanism to enrich the fuel mixture when the engine is under load. The richer fuel mixture helps prevent detonation, or “ping,” when the vehicle is climbing a hill or accelerating.
Let us here make an important point. Enrichening the fuel mixture under conditions of load greatly reduces the overall fuel economy. It also greatly increases the pollutants and wasted fuel out of the vehicle exhaust.
Let us consider an alternate choice which may increase fuel mileage greatly. There is a fuel system modification which truly compliments a properly designed steam injection unit.
Please note that steam it one of the best anti-detonates available. So, when using a properly designed and metered steam injection unit, the fuel enrichening mechanism on the carburetor or fuel injection system can actually be leaned out or removed.
Under conditions of increased engine load, a greater volume of steam would now be injected into the engine to prevent detonation, instead of injecting excess fuel for this purpose. A properly designed water injection system may also be installed, and set to inject a fine spray of water into the intake manifold whenever the throttle is suddenly rammed open.
Using water and steam injection in combination with a fixed, very lean and fully vaporized fuel mixture, may greatly increase overall fuel economy. It does this by eliminating the use of excess fuel for cylinder cooling purposes. As an added benefit, the superheated steam helps to rapidly vaporize the gasoline as it enters the induction system of the engine.
Because expansion is a cooling process, the rapidly vaporizing fuel cools the overall fuel charge. This is a very inexpensive method for obtaining "intercooling" in an engine's induction system. Yes, it is a proven fact that improved vaporization helps to increase fuel economy.
In relation to the subject of increased vaporization, please read the next entry. The information presented is truly worth considering.
THE VAPOR CARBURETOR
Charles Pogue was an inventor from Canada. This man understood that the most explosive (and also the most powerful) part of gasoline is its vapor. He therefore invented a very unique fuel system. This system converted liquid gasoline completely into "dry" vapors, and then mixed these vapors with air for induction into the engine.
By using his relatively simple system, Charles Pogue was able to obtain some incredible results. He was readily able to obtain more than 200 miles per Imperial Gallon of gasoline (or more than 166 miles per U.S. gallon). He was doing this in two-ton Ford cars equipped with V-type eight cylinder engines. But this is not all.
Pogue also held three basic patents for high mileage vaporizing carburetors which he developed especially for General Motors in the 1930's.
A Pogue carburetor was tested in below zero weather. In this test, two prominent Canadian automobile men reported 209.6 miles to the Imperial Gallon of gasoline (or 174.5 miles per U.S. gallon). The carburetor was then tried on Pogue’s own 1934 Ford 8-cylinder car. In this configuration, it experienced excellent performance, consistently running over 200 miles on each Imperial Gallon of gasoline.
There is something very special to note about the Pogue system. There is a question as to what he was really doing to the gasoline in his system. Let us note that in Pogue's special fuel system, he was heating the gasoline vapors with the heat from the high temperature exhaust gases. Let us examine what can happen under these conditions.
At elevated temperatures, hydrocarbon molecules will break up in a random way into a variable mixture of lower molecular weight gases. This mixture may include gases like (or similar to) methane, propane, butane, etc.
It is said that the gases produced in the Pogue system did not want to recondense upon cooling. Therefore it appears that Pogue was converting a given volume of gasoline into a very large volume of lower molecular weight gaseous fuels. These gaseous fuels were then used to power Pogue-equipped engines.
In the Pogue system, air was bubbled through gasoline contained in the first chamber, where fuel vapors were created. This mixture of fuel vapors and air was then heated by high temperature exhaust gases and brought above the cracking temperature of the hydrocarbon fuel. There is actually more to consider in what Pogue was doing.
This cracking of the fuel occurred not in the absence of air, but with a limited amount of air, In such a situation, the carbon in the fuel may readily have combined with the limited supply of oxygen in the included air, to form carbon monoxide. In this process, a certain amount of hydrogen gas may also have been released into the fuel stream.
Pogue may actually have produced a primitive type of syngas fuel system: one which allowed V8 engines to experience a drastic increase in fuel economy. The fuel mileage experienced with Pogue's system was truly amazing considering the fact that his final fuel was of a rather low-grade because of dilution from nitrogen in the included air.
Had Pogue refined his methods to produce a higher-grade fuel which did not contain the nitrogen dilution, he would have been near the fuel-portion of the system which the author is presenting in this site. His final result could have been even higher fuel mileage than his impressive system was already obtaining.
A FEW NOTES
The fuel mileage obtainable with a Pogue system is truly impressive. It is even reported that Charles Pogue wanted to build a special 450 MPG carburetor! Please do not be surprised by this thought, for as far back as the 1940's, engineers in the petroleum industry calculated that there is enough energy in each gallon of gasoline to propel a lightweight car for 480 miles on a level road.
The challenge of the petroleum engineers, in the 1940s, was to create a method for unlocking all this energy for power production in an engine. As we see today in our autos, such a system never made it to the general public. Now, let us look beyond the basic vaporizing and cracking-type carburetor.
Friend, what kind of additional fuel mileage could be experienced by a vapor or cracking-type fuel system, if a properly designed combination of water and steam injection were also installed? This would effectively control the combustion of the extremely lean fuel charge.
The use of water and steam would completely eliminate detonation problems when using the very lean mixture, which in turn would allow for the production of a lot of power from the engine. With this thought firmly in mind, let us introduce an even more advanced fuel system!
TOWARD BETTER PERFORMANCE
From 1980 through 1986, the author did extensive research on a new type of automotive fuel system which would readily adapt to existing gasoline engines. The basic technology for this system can use either solid carbon or liquid hydrocarbons (gasoline, diesel fuel, old cooking oil, used motor oil, etc.) as the primary fueling agent.
For a period of time, the writer performed a number of experiments on test-vehicles to further increase practical knowledge relating to this new system. From 1986 through the present time, the writer continues to research and perform experiments which lead toward the advanced fuel system which is proposed in this Web site.
Because time is of the essence (and because the average energy costs continue to rise), this information is now being passed along to you, the Reader. May you be the first in your area to build or own this extremely-advanced system.
A FEW BASICS
As already noted, this special system may be designed to use either a solid or liquid fuel. In all essence, the fuel is used to rapidly “split” water (right in the engine compartment). In the chemical reaction that takes place, the carbon-based solid or liquid fuel is broken down and becomes part of the resulting compound, gaseous fuel.
The special fuel that is created will remain in its gaseous state, even when cooled to around minus 190 degrees Celsius or minus 310 degrees Fahrenheit! That is colder than the environment in which most motor vehicles will be used.
Continuing on: the gaseous fuel is extremely clean burning. It causes virtually no pollution, when used in a properly designed system! The combustion of the fast burning gaseous fuel is controlled in the engine cylinder by the use of both water and steam injection.
Once again, please consider this information. As already noted, Charles Pogue, in the 1930's, was said to readily obtain 209 MPG from an eight-cylinder vehicle by simply vaporizing and cracking the gasoline. It appears that his ultimate goal was to perfect an advanced fuel system which would allow a car to obtain 450 MPG!
Furthermore, the petroleum engineers, in the 1940's, proclaimed that there is enough energy in each gallon of gasoline to propel a vehicle 480 miles on a level road. All that was needed was a method to "unlock" all this energy. Now let us stop and think for a moment!
The new system (introduced herein) takes a solid or liquid fuel, and goes far beyond simple vaporization. It includes chemical conversions with another substance! What degree of hydrocarbon fuel economy could this new system ultimately deliver?
In this system, about one-half of the finished gaseous fuel is made up of the original carbon-based fuel. The other part of the final fuel (that which the engine “sees”) consists of the chemically altered components from ordinary distilled water!
A STEP BEYOND
Within the fuel charge of this new system is injected still more water and steam. By using this procedure, the combustion characteristics can actually be tailored for optimum use in the engine under all types of driving conditions or varying engine loads.
With all things considered, this new fuel system, by itself, should have the capability of delivering fuel economy which is far beyond the 209 MPG which was readily obtained with the antiquated Pogue system! The new system should be able to produce extreme high mileage, while having almost no release of harmful pollutants.
But, the author's total engine package does not stop here. In his system, only enough fuel is used to create heat in the engine cylinder. Then water is injected, which flashes into steam; creating a large amount of pressure within the cylinder. This steam is the main driving force of the engine.
Truly, what will be the fuel economy which can be experienced when using the author's syngas powered, combined-cycle, combustion-steam engine technology? Isn't it time we found out?
A HEALTHY RETURN
The engine exhaust in the above system, should include mainly carbon dioxide and water vapor. The water vapor can be condensed for reuse in the fuel process and combustion control systems.
The carbon dioxide could be chemically altered in a manner which will allow it to be converted back into a fuel, for reuse in the system. Friend, this system can be designed to recycle a great portion of its fuels!
The various systems discussed in this report can be installed on other engines besides those found in just automobiles. They may be installed on engines used to power water craft, electrical generators, farm equipment, any type of off road vehicle, and even ultralight aircraft. The list of applications includes virtually everything which is powered by an internal combustion engine!
It is a fact that even a diesel-type engine can benefit (with proper modification) from this special technology! It can also be used on a turbine engine and many other engine types.
Friend, the basic information has been presented. Now, the rest is up to you. Now is your chance to become actively involved with this environmentally-friendly, high-economy, high-performance fuel system.
This report is simply an introduction to systems which may be feasible in your particular situation. This report does not, by any means, include all of the special systems which the author is currently researching and designing toward.